Excerpted from MBTI® Manual (The Myers-Briggs Company 1998). Used with permission.
While type has not been assessed in all cultural societies, it has been surveyed in about 30 countries on all continents, some with more than one culture. So far, the studies have suggested the following:
In summary, studies to date provide clear support for the theory that psychological type is universal across cultures.
Regardless of its multicultural effectiveness, the MBTI® instrument is not a device for identifying features of a culture. Even when the type distributions of two cultures are quite similar, the cultures themselves are not necessarily similar. Each culture defines appropriate acceptable ways for people to express themselves, including ways to express their type preferences. Cultural norms and expectations guide the expression of type.
As a result, preferences may not look the same in different cultures. Britain and the United States offer good examples. The type distributions of business groups are almost the same, yet Britain appears to have more people with preferences for Introversion and the United States more people who prefer Extraversion. Researchers believe this is because the behavior British Introverts use to express their Introversion is quite different from the behavior Introverts in the U.S. use to express their Introversion. The differences in behavior do not necessarily indicate differences in type, but differences in ways the preferences can be expressed within those cultures.
Leadership, Type and Culture by Charles W. Ginn (CAPT 2001)
MBTI® Manual by Isabel Briggs Myers, Mary H. McCaulley, Naomi Quenk, and Allen L. Hammer (The Myers-Briggs Company 1998)
MBTI® Type Tables International by Nancy A. Schaubhut and Richard C. Thompson (The Myers-Briggs Company 2009)
Type and Culture by Linda K. Kirby, Elizabeth Kendall, and Nancy J. Barger (The Myers-Briggs Company 2007)